Speech Act Theory:Propositional, Preparatory, Sincerity, and Essential Conditions
Searle: from conditions to rule
Speech act is the basic unit of communication.
“Tindak tutur adalah bagian paling dasar dari komunikasi”
Speech acts are acts characteristically performed by uttering expression.
Speech act becomes crux (most important) in study the language, meaning, and communication.
Speech act becomes a competence of the linguist.
Speech act theory analyzes the way meaning and acts are linguistically communicated.
Searle stated that, there are a series of analytic connections between the notion/ idea of speech acts, what the speaker means, what the sentence (or other linguistic element) uttered means, what the speaker intends, what the hearer understand, and what the rules governing the linguistics element are.
Moreover, Searle’s rules and condition not only in context and text, but also in elevate/ Intents to intention and psychological condition.
Searle divide utterance into 4 segments:
- Utterance acts: the uttering word
- Prepositional acts : referring and predicating
- Illocutionary acts: Acts like stating, questioning. Commanding, and promising
- Perlocutionary acts: Effect of illocutionary
Rules responsible in Speech Act:
- Constitutive Rule: irregular behavior form and more definitional or establish what a speech act means.
- Regulative Rule: regular behavior form and imperative or govern what kind of communication behavior is appropriate or inappropriate in a given situation.
Searle (ibid.:65-68) sets out a significant contribution to the SAT concerning the Felicity Conditions (henceforth FCs). For Searle, felicity conditions form a group of necessary conditions for the performance of a certain act. If these conditions are all present, the act will be performed successfully. He classifies the FCs into four types:
1. Propositional Content Conditions:
These conditions express the proposition of the sentence in question. They count as an expression of the psychological state.
2. Preparatory Conditions:
They refer to the intention and knowledge of the speaker and the hearer. They tell us what the speaker implies in the performance of the act. In the performance of any illocutionary act, the speaker implies that the preparatory conditions of the act are satisfied.
3. Sincerity Conditions:
They tell us what the speaker believes, intends, and desires in the performance of the act. One cannot greet insincerely, but one can state or promise insincerely.
4. Essential Conditions:
They are the constitutive rules that determine the type of IA. For example; in making a promise, the speaker intends the utterance to 'count as' a promise, etc., and the hearer should know that intention.
Summary of Approaches to Discourse by Deborah Schiffrin (1995) in Page 54-57