Speech Act Theory: Constatives, locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutinary

2.1.2 Constatives
Constatives: Utterances that can be verified as true or false. These utterances were typically in the form of assertions or statements.
For example:
“The cat is on the mat”
“I promise to be there”
If the listeners do not belief the cat is on the mat or he/she will not be there, then the constatives will be untruth.
“I come from to Jambi”

Austin’s development of speech acts can be broken down into 3 kinds of acts:

a. A locutionary act: Involves the uttering of an expression with sense and reference, the act “of saying something”.
“Ada makna tapi tidak ada maksud, tindakan mengucapkan sesuatu dengan kata atau kalimat sesuai makna yang terdapat di dalam kamus serta sesuai dengan kaidah sintaksisnya.”
For example:
A: “Let’s go”
B: “I am cooking”

b. A illocutionary act: the act performed “in saying” the locution.
“Ada makna ada maksud”
For example:
A: “I need to go now”
B: “But, I have a cook now”

c. A perlocutinary act: the "consequently effect” of an utterance.
“efek dari ilokusi”
For example:
A: “I need to go now”
B: “But, I have a cook now”
A: “but I am in rush/ OK, I waiting for your cook”

Approaches to Discourse by Deborah Schiffrin (1995): Blackwell Oxford UK & Cambridge USA
Summary of Page 51-54


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