Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening

This Psycholinguistics article on Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening is concern from Psycholinguistics textbook John Field psycholinguistics book (a resource book for students) published by Routledege in 2003. Some psycholinguistics pdf theory textbook was available in others resources (internet). This Psycholinguistics article were comes from my Psycholinguistics definition lecturing note study, particularly about Issues in Listening on page 38 (A9, Issues in Listening) to page 33 of the resource book.

This title of Psycholinguistics article is Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening
Issues in Listening
Ø  Listening activity is not constructive.
Ø  Listening is very different in form from the word on the page.
Ø  Reading activity can refer to previously, because we can refer to our previous reading material, but listening is not. We only guess what we have listening before. Therefore, listening activity is not constructive.

ù  The linearity Issue
Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening is also concern in The linearity Issue.
            The spoken signal does not consist of a string of phenomena in the way that written language consists of a string of letters.
Phoneme: Smallest meaningful unit
When we are listening to the speaker reads, and then we are only listening to the phoneme according the words that are the speaker reads.
For example:
Ø  The words /kæt/.
The sound /k/can not be said to end of the word; It blends into the succeeding /æ/, just as the /æ/ blends into /t/.
Ø  “sit by the fire”
We will hear the word sit and by are blending into “d”. We will listen to the intrusive sound (infix sound)

Question: Do listeners actually analyse a speech signal into phenomena?
Answer: No, we do not need to analyse, we just keep listening to the speaker.

ù  The non-invariance (changing) issue
There is The non-invariance (changing) issue in Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening
            Because of the blending effect (known as co-articulation or combination o articulators) there is no such thing as an unvarying ‘pure’ example of /k/ or /æ/ in connected speech. Researcher have studied the cues that are physically present in the speech stream but so far have failed to find any combination of features that is peculiar to one phoneme alone.
For example: try to saying kill and cool and compare the position of the initial /k/ sound in your mouth. The sound we hear are unavoidably shaped by the sounds that come before and after them or in other words could be say as assimilation process.

ù  The Normalisation Issue
Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening was also issues on The Normalization Issue.

            Every speaker has a distinctive voice, because:
-         Differences of our articulators (mouth, jaws, tongues, teeth). Our articulators are vary greatly in size, shape and position.
-         Differences in regional accents
-         Differences in pitch, between the voices of men and the voices of women
Men and women are different in their timbre (warna bunyi)
-         Differences in speech rate, because it is vary on different occasions
English stress in lexical meaning.

Question: How do we manage to normalise (adjust) to the voice and speech rate and accent of a wide range of individuals?
Answer: By train our voice and speech rate.

ù  The accommodation issue
There is The accommodation issue In Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening
            A speaker is sometimes faced with a difficult move from one articulatory setting to another. There may be assimilation, when the last sound o a word adjusts to the position of the first sound of the word that follows: green paint -> [gri;m peint]. There may be elision, especially where there are complicated sequences of consonant: next spring -> [nek spriŋ].

ù  The lexical segmentation issue
            There are no consistent gaps between words in connected speech as there are in written language.

ù  The storage issue
            The reader has a permanent record on the page of the words they have encountered, and they can refer back to them if they lose the thread o the argument. Listening is not recursive in the same way: the speech signal is transitory and the listener is entirely reliant upon their own mental representation of the utterance so far.

Process solutions
            An early attempt to deal with the non-invariance problem was proposed (1967) by Liberman and his colleagues by its Motor Theory. Motor Theory suggested that we are able to interpret the sounds we hear in connected speech by relating them to the muscular movements that we make when producing them. The possibility was raised that listening might be associated with a degree of sub-vocalisation, with the listener forming silent articulatory setting to match the sounds that they hear. There is that limited sub-vocalisation sometime accompanies reading. Lastly, Process solutions requires in Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening


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