Psycholinguistics theory Long Term Memory and Schema Theory

This Psycholinguistics theory is based on Psycholinguistics theory book of Psycholinguistics textbook John Field psycholinguistics book (a resource book for students) published by Routledege in 2003 page 38-43.
Long Term Memory and Schema Theory, page 40

Ø  Types of schema should be used frequently.
Ø  Terms of three types of schema:
    1. ‘World knowledge’: including encyclopedia knowledge, and previous knowledge of the speaker or writer.  In other words, general knowledge as mention in dictionary.
    2. Knowledge built up from the text so far: a current meaning representation or knowledge acquiring after reading some text.
    3. Previous experience (a text schema).

It was different in the speech act, when we talk in the class and talking in the bar.

Ø  Words knowledge serves to:
-          Provide a framework or understanding, the more we have experience, the more we have knowledge.
-          Enable predictions about the text, against which actual contents are matched.
-          Support recall (menopang ingatan).

Ø  Processing a text involves:
-          Setting up a representation of the text so far into which new information is constantly integrated.
o   Install and tidy up the previous one and presently.           
-          Determining what is/ is not important in the text.

Ø  Previous experience of a text type helps us to:
-          Recognize how information is likely to be distributed
-          Recognize how we should engage with the speaker or writer.

A schema framework
            When we read the passage and try to recall the passage, some people will have difficult to explain what they have read. The reason is, because the reader is lacked of schematic background to the passage that they have just read. Some reason also because the reader is never experienced about the passage.
            When we have good schematic background or many experience, we will be easy to recall something that are related to our background. For example: Someone will be easy recall the passage about camel, when he has experience or schematic background about camel previously.

Shared Knowledge
            Sharing the knowledge should be performed when the speaker need to inform some information to the listener. As consequently, when there is a similar knowledge between speakers to listener the conversation is coherence communicative.

Exceptional Circumstance (kondisi luar biasa)

            This part is to support the work of general practitioners, psychiatrist and speech therapist.
            Exceptional circumstance could be explained as:
-          Studies of the effect of deafness or blindness upon language
-          Studies o language disorders where some aspect of linguistic processing is impaired
-          Studies of individual woth cognitive difficulties where at least parts of the language faculty are spared.

            Circumstances affect language in terms of delay acquisition (lambat bicara) and deviance from standard forms (menyebrang dari bentuk standar).

Sensory Impairment
-          Deafness
Teaching language to deafness is by teaching the sign language.
Prelinguistic deafness affects language in delayed acquisition.

-          Blindness
            Blind infants certainly appear to acquire a phonological system a little more slowly than is normal.

-          Language disorder (gangguan bahasa)

            Language disorder can acquire from the result of surgery, a stroke, an accident or old age. Some language disorders are:
o   Problems of fluency (masalah kefasihan)
According psychological aspect, this may result of shy or scare to speak some words.
According physiological aspect, its because of misoperation of the articulators. Physiological aspect is not part of psycholinguistics study, but in medical study.

o   Problems of written language
Dyslexia (difficult in reading)
Dysgraphia (difficult in writing)


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