“Pragmatics” books by George Yule Section 2
“Pragmatics” books by George Yule
Definition and Background
- Text 1
Do you think that pragmatics is the study of all action, or should it be limited to only certain action?
Answer: Yes, pragmatics is the study of all action. Pragmatics could be limited to only certain action in terms of spontaneous action. Some spontaneous actions have no meaning, such as cough, blink, sneeze, yawning or etc.
According Text 1, there are 3 beliefs can be concluded, that are:
- The swimmer is going drown
- The swimmer is need assistance/ help
- The ball will help the swimmer floating.
How can we know about the person’s beliefs when we are analyzing their actions and utterance?
Answer: From the situation. According the text, the text is story about the sea and the action of the swimmer. When someone us non verbal communication (such as waving the hands) in the sea then we should know that (belief) the swimmer is need assistance.
I the swimmer doesn’t want assistance (in the example), how does that affect the analysis?
Answer: The analysis will be different. The lifeguards doesn’t see the drown swimmer. When we consider to analysis, we should recognize the contents.
- Text 2
What do you think is the ‘invariant core’ meaning of the word ‘ball’ as proposed here?
Can you think of any use of the word ‘ball’ that would not have that ‘core’ meaning?
Can ‘the context’ cause a word not to have its ‘core meaning’?
Answer: ‘Invariant core’ meaning of the word ‘ball’ is round. However, some ball is not round, such as rugby ball. Therefore, rugby ball is haven’t core meaning. Example of rugby ball is the word ‘ball’ that would not have that ‘core’ meaning.
‘The context’ can cause a word not to have its ‘core meaning’. For example the word ‘put’ will have different meaning when we use in the context of sport. The word ‘putted’ is a term use in golf activity. Therefore, the context can cause a word not to have its ‘core meaning’.
What does the term 'context’ seems to refer to in this text?
If you have a different concept of ‘context’, how would you revise this paragraph to illustrate more clearly?
Answer: The term ‘context’ according to the text is the context verbal. The word ‘putted’ is appearing by golf terminology. In addition, ‘shot a basket’ is also a terminology used in basket ball games.
To revise the paragraph, we could use general words, which are well-known by many people, nut used a specific terminology.
Deixis and Distance
- Text 3
Can you transfer this discussion to temporal deixis (as described in Chapter 2), considering ‘then’ (instead of ‘there’) in gestural, symbolic, and anaphoric uses?
Answer: Yes, we can. We can transfer the discussion by gestural or symbolic uses. ‘then’ is explain about time and ‘there’ is explain about place..
Given the three categories described here, which category seems to fit the typical uses of deitic expressions such as ‘yesterday’ and ‘tomorrow’?
Answer: ‘tomorrow’ could use the word ‘then’ and ‘yesterday’ could be use a word ‘there’.