In Part A1, psycholinguistics: what is it?, I have mention, the below and my previous article is discuss on psycholinguistics theory based on the Psycholinguistics Books (Field, John, 2003). The next below material will also talk about introduction to psycholinguistics.
A2 Language, Speech and Communication
Some question frequently asked in psycholinguistics.
Is speech is only use on the human? The answer is, yes it is. Because human is species-specific.
Is only the human are able in developing their communication rather than animal? The answer is yes.
To what extent is the language faculty separate from other mental operations?
Is the language faculty part of general cognition or not?
There are three approaches consider to the language is a language skill, which are:
- We can specify what we mean by ‘language’ and then attempt to establish if the communication system of any other species fits our criteria.
- We can establish whether other species are capable of acquiring speech or language.
- We can try to establish how language evolved and how long it has been of the property of the human race and its ancestors.
Communication, is a terms which cover any means by which two individuals exchange information.
Language is not the only communication instruments, but many instruments we can used for communication, for example, we can used our hand, body, fire, light or etc. as communication instruments.
We can express the communication in many ways, such as in smiling, winking, nod, or etc.
Paralinguistic technique is a communication which is not involved in vocalization.
Example of Paralinguistic, caught, scream, grunts, snoozing, snorts, whimpers, groans, and sighs.
Language is voluntary: Language is control by speaker.
Language is symbolic: Language is representing something which is different.
Example, when we talk about “rose”, then it can represent as a “love”.
Language is systematic: Language has different specific meaning to another language or words.
Language operates in two different ways, in form of writing and speech.
Speech is symbolize as a vocalization (producing the sound)
Speech is related to form, position, size, voice instrument, tongues, nose and etc.
A3 Language and The Brain
Human brain vs Primates Brain
The cortex is much more extensive in human beings.
Human brain is cognitive process (producing and understanding speech) rather then primate brain.
- Localization: Brain has specific function
- Transition: Sometime brain is easy learning specific language sometime hard.
The brain is protected by many organs. Such as hair, head skin, skull and cortex.
Related keywords of this article are: Assignment or chapter report of Psycholinguistics Theory based on John Field Book (2003).