Wednesday, August 14, 2013

Process of Words Formation, George Yule

This is theory how translator create a new words from Process of Words Formation by George Yule.

1. Coinage
One of the least common processes of word formation in English is coinage. Coinage is the invention of totally new terms. Older examples are aspirin, nylon, vaseline and zipper; more recent examples are granola, kleenex, teflon and xerox or google (from googol, the number 1 followed by 100 zeros). Now the name of google are become anything which is refers to its function or company.



2. Borrowing
Borrowing is the most common sources of new words in English. Borrowing is the taking over of words from other languages. For examples croissant (French), dope (Dutch), lilac (Persian), piano (Italian), pretzel (German), sofa (Arabic), tattoo (Tahitian), tycoon (Japanese), yogurt (Turkish) and zebra (Bantu).

3. Derivation
Derivation is a large number of small “bits” of the English language which are not usually given separate listings in dictionaries. These small “bits” are generally described as affixes. Some familiar examples are the element sun-, `mis-, pre-, -ful, -less, -ish, -ism and-ness which appear in words like unhappy, misrepresent, prejudge, joyful, careless, boyish, terrorism and sadness. In terms of derivation process, some affixes added into beginning of words (prefix) e.g.un-, mis- and other affixes added in the end of words (suffixes), e.g. -less, -ish. All English words formed by this derivational process have either prefixes or suffixes, or both.

4. Back- formation
A very specialized type of reduction process is known as back formation. Typically, a word of one type (usually a noun) is reduced to form a word of another type (usually a verb). A good example of backformation is the process whereby the noun television first came into use and then the verb televise was created from it. Other examples of words created by this process are: donate (from “donation”), emote (from “emotion”), enthuse (from “enthusiasm”), liaise (from “liaison”) and baby sit (from “babysitter”).

5. Clipping
Clipping is occurs when a word of more than one syllable (facsimile) is reduced to a shorter form (fax), usually beginning in casual speech. Other common examples are ad (advertisement), bra (brassiere), cab (cabriolet), condo (condominium), fan (fanatic), flu (influenza), perm (permanent wave), phone, plane and pub(public house).

6. Blending
The combination of two separate forms to produce a single new term is also present in the process called blending. However, blending is typically accomplished by taking only the beginning of one word and joining it to the end of the other word. In some parts of the USA, there’s a product that is used like gasoline, but is made from alcohol, so the “blended” word for referring to this product is gasohol. Others examples of blending words are smog (smoke/ fog), bit (binary/digit), brunch (breakfast/lunch), motel (motor/hotel) and telecast (television/ broadcast).

7. Compounding
A joining of two separate words to produce a single form is called as compounding. Common English compounds are bookcase, doorknob, fingerprint, sunburn, textbook, wallpaper, wastebasket and waterbed. All these examples are nouns, but we can also create compound adjectives (good-looking, low-paid) and compounds of adjective (fast) plus noun (food) as in a fast-food restau-rant or a full-time job. This very productive source of new terms has been well documented in English and German.

8. Acronym
Acronyms are new words formed from the initial letters of a set of other words. These can be forms such as CD (“compact disk”) or VCR (“video cassette recorder”) where the pronunciation consists of saying each separate letter.

9. Conversion
A change in the function of a word, as for example when a noun comes to be used as a verb (without any reduction), is generally known as conversion. A number of nouns such as bottle, butter, chair and vacation have come to be used, through conversion, as verbs: We bottled the home-brew last night. The conversion can involve verbs becoming nouns, phrasal verbs into nouns, verb into the nouns, verbs becomes adjective, adjective into the verbs or the noun.

10. Multiple Process
The operation of more than one process at work in the creation of a particular word is known as Multiple Process. For example, the term deli seems to have become a common American English expression via a process of first borrowing delicatessen (from German) and then clipping that borrowed form.

References:
Yule, George. The Study of Language, Fourth Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2006.

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