Saturday, March 23, 2013

Psycholinguistics Characteristics of Speech

Section A10
Characteristics of Speech

Ø  We need to plan our pausing in conversation.
Ø  When we need a pausing in the writing form, then the point of pausing place is based on verb in the sentence.
For example:
“Yesterday, when my family and I, went to Jakarta, a first, we didn’t’ know what transport we had to choose, then, my father suggested that, we’d better go by train.”

Ø  Clause is located in the main unit; the main of clause is the verb.
Ø  A normal speech rate produce by speaker is 150 words per minute or averagely one in every 400 milliseconds.
Ø  In pressure condition, the speech rate is increased, becomes doubled to one every 200 milliseconds.

Ø  A normal, educated adult speaker can produce about 30,000 words.
Ø  Garnham, et. al. (1982) found that there are 191 slips of the tongue in a text corpus of 200,000 words- about one slip per 1,000 words.

Ø  Slip of the tongue: want to say “a house full of cat” but slips becomes “a cat full of house”.

Ø  Lexicon: permanent dictionary in our memory/ brain.
Ø  We will stop our speaking, when we are becomes tired to speak.

Lack of pausing (kurang banyak berhenti)
The non- native speaker will hard to understand the native speaker speaks in their language (native language) when he naïve speaker is lack of pausing. The non-native speaker will argue that the native speaker is too fast in speaking, because of lack of the pausing.

Ø  The vast majority of slips of the tongue occur within a clause.

Reason of Pausing:
  1. To remove what is in our speech buffer (e.i.“hhhmmm.... ”, “aaaa....”), and replace it into a new form, should be easy to understand.
  2. To help he speaker in retrieving the item for the lexicon o utters is meaning.

Important of pausing purposes:
  1. Indication of the speaker to give he chance into the listener to speak up.
  2. Indication of the next important sentence o be utters.

Three main type of speech (according to John Layer, 1994):
  1. In continuous fluent speech, a speaking turn o several phonological phrases is produced without pauses.
  2.  In non-continuous fluent speech, a speaking turn of several phonological phrases has pauses between the phrases but they decided with clause boundaries.
  3. In non-continuous hesitant speech, there are hesitation pauses which all within phonological phrases.

Section A11
Long Term Memory and Schema Theory

Ø  Theory of memory distinguishes between:
-          Working Memory (short term memory): information stored temporarily and current processing operations are undertaken.
-          Long term memory: permanent information stored in our memory. Different function in long term memory:
v  Declarative memory: knowing that (for fact and concepts). Some distinction occur in declarative memory (Tulving,1972), which are:
§  Episodic Memory: memory for specific events and experiences
§  Semantic memory: memory for facts and concepts relating to the world.
v  Procedural memory: knowing how (for skills and processed)

Schema Theory
            Minimalist Feature is a minimal feature of certain word store in our memory.
Schema Theory Psycholinguistics Characteristics of Speech

Figure A11.1 A schema or the concept TABLE
Ø  Terms of three types of schema:
    1. ‘World knowledge’: including encyclopedia knowledge, and previous knowledge of the speaker or writer.  In other words, general knowledge as mention in dictionary.
    2. Knowledge built up from the text so far: a current meaning representation or knowledge acquiring after reading some text.
    3. Previous experience (a text schema).

Ø  Words knowledge serves to:
-          Provide a framework or understanding, the more we have experience, the more we have knowledge.
-          Enable predictions about the text, against which actual contents are matched.
-          Support recall.

Ø  Processing a text involves:
-          Setting up a representation of the text so far into which new information is constantly integrated.
-          Determining what is/ is not important in the text.

Ø  Previous experience of a text type helps us to:
-          Recognize how information is likely to be distributed
-          Recognize how we should engage with the speaker or writer.

Shared Knowledge
Sharing the knowledge should be performed when the speaker need to inform some information to the listener. As consequently, when there is a similar knowledge between speakers to listener the conversation is coherence communicative.

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