Thursday, March 28, 2013

Pragmatics 2 and 5 Reference & Inference, Presupposition & Entailment, And Discourse & Culture



Pragmatics 2 and 5 Reference & Inference, Presupposition & Entailment, And Discourse & Culture

Function: asking, question
Language skill are, listening > speaking > reading > writing
What is Pragmatic? Pragmatics is study to politeness, such as the way how we introducing something to someone.

Chapter 3
Book of “Pragmatics”
Reference and Inference
Deixis refers to someone, time.
Refereeing expression, linguistically is about someone expression or idiom
Reference could be refers to name of someone or identity, using the noun phrase (such as the table, the tiger, the teacher), pronoun, time or space.
One name in references can refers to 2 references, for example, Bill Gates, the richest or the boss.
We need to definite the reference. We can add attributive use in our reference, in the left of the references or on the right of references, in order to make a clear reference.
For example: “The man who ...” (right attributive use) or "He want to marry, a richest, young, .... Woman" (left attributive use)
Formulated expression: a word/ sentence which have a formula to answer the expression
For example: “How do you do?” usually we will answer by “How do you do” too.
Reason, why we have a ‘name’, is because to make easy to references.
Role of co-text
“Brazil wins World Cup”
It means that not ‘Brazil’ but it refers to a football Brazil team.
Brazil refers to expression and ‘World Cup’ is a part of co-text, more explanation.
Co-text is accompanying the refereeing expression.

Sometime we need to inform the audience what we refer to, to make a good communication.
Reference can modify by pronoun (she, he, it).
Anaphoric Reference: subsequent references to already introduce referents or information which is located on the let side.
For example: "The man was holding the cat while the woman poured water on it"
The word “it” is anaphoric reference.

Cataphora Reference: More information on the right side.
For axample: I turned the corner and almost stepped on it. There was a large snake in the middle of the path.
The word “it”, is more explained about the snake.
Chapter IV
Presupposition and Entailment
Presupposition is before the event. Entailment is posses by 2 sentences; if the first sentence is true then the second sentence is true. Presupposition: “Did you have stop smoking?” It means that, ‘you are a smoker’
“Doing Pragmatics” Book
Axis: relationship between reference to an initial point of utterance or the center.
Indexical sound:
“Do come in” close to the speaker
“Do go in” go away from the speaker

Arbitrary: A new word is not having a relationship to the initial word. Such as, ‘dog’ can we call as ‘guk-guk’
Chapter 9
Discourse and Culture
Book of “Pragmatics” by George Yule
Discourse Analysis
Discourse analysis focus on how words are use in casual talk, study of dominant ideology in culture as represented. Pragmatics focuses on aspects what is unsaid or unwritten (yet communicated) within the discourse being analyzed.

Coherence
Coherence: Meaning boundaries in the text.
Plant sale: Someone is selling plants
however
‘Garage Sale’ is not someone is selling the garage, but selling its household from their garage.

Background knowledge
Background knowledge is knowledge readers that support the readers in understanding the text. Schema (plural form schemata) is a knowledge which is store in the memory/brain during the life.

Cultural schemata
A cultural schema was developing in the context of our basic experiences. A good schema of one persons must not have similar schema to others person, it could be bad. Teaching a language should be follows by cultural study. When we want to teach a language to non-native speaker, we can support our teaching by some method, such as teaching how to make a meal or food according the cultural context.

Cross-cultural pragmatics
Cross-cultural pragmatics occurs because each cultural is various, in terms the conversation, tradition or etc. Cross-cultural pragmatics is a study of differences of schemata in different cultural.
Last explanation of Pragmatics 2 and 5 Reference& Inference, Presupposition & Entailment, And Discourse & Culture from Chapter 9.

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