Saturday, February 23, 2013

Psycholinguistics WRITING SYSTEM




Psycholinguistics: WRITING SYSTEM

Some terms should be recognizing in writing system:
-          a writing system: a method of writing such as the alphabet
-          a script: a form of writing (Arabic script, Greek script)
-          an orthography : The writing conventions of a particular language.

Three different types of writing system are in this world, which are:
  1. Alphabetic system: read as its character (Latin character or Arabic character)
            Alphabetic systems vary considerably. All the words can be interpreted using consistent grapheme-phoneme correspondence (GPC) rules. English provides an example of an opaque orthography, because it contains a mixture of:
-          words that can be spelt using GPC rules (e.g. canteen, hospitality)
-          words where the weak phoneme /ə/ (schwa) is represented by any one of the five vowels
-          words that can be spelt by analogy eith other words (e.g. light, rough). rough could be similar to slough, rouge etc.
-          Words that are unique in their spellings (e.g. yacht, buoy) and thus demand the kind of whole-word processing by an English Writer that we find in a logographic system like Chinese.
  1. Syllabaries: with a symbol for each syllable of the language, based on phonology of the language.
  2. Lographic system: Recognizing how the words (logo) pronounced (such as Chinese, Japanese, writing system.

Is one system easier?
            The answer is relative to the speaker. If, the speaker recognize the system then it would be easier to read the writing system. Logographic system makes great demands on the writer’s memory store. The Arabic writing system is firstly recognizing in khalifa utsman , when he pass someone who read a wrong pronunciation to the Al-Quran. Then, he introduces the writing system of Al-Quran to Arabic writing system.



Decoding in Reading:
Decoding in reading is trying to understanding the text
Decoding require a process in understanding the text, in lower and higher level.
-          Lower level require to decoding the text, recognizing the difficult words then analyzing and accessing the difficult word in the memory.
-          Higher level: The reader is automatically read the text, little action in thinking about the text and understanding overall the text.

Decoding Level Process: Apply the all knowledge which is not mention in the text to understanding the overall text. Decoding is initiated by read aloud to get the sound of its reader.
The memory will easier to remember the new words when there is a high frequency meets the difficult word.

Neighborhood effect: effect that occurs when we remember one word then a similar rime word will also occur. Example: when we are remember the word “head”, then our memory will also recognize the word read, lead, read etc.

Encoding: Input the new expression or words into the language.
A good listeners is recognize what the speaker utters before the speaker is stop to speaks.
Reason why spoken form rather than visual:
  1. Spoken information in memory is more durable than visual.
  2. If we store words in spoken form, they are less likely to interface with visual process pf decoding words on the page.

            The more our visual have sense the words, the more easy or strong our memory will remember the words. For example:
When we recognize the words “apple” into the child, then we ask the children to speak the words, then we will show the children how the “apple” image or picture, furthermore, we will show the children how the “apple” taste.

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