Saturday, February 23, 2013

Pragmatics Implicit meaning



Pragmatics Implicit meaning:
Grice’s theory of conversational implicature
From the Book of “Doing Pragmatics” by Peter Grundy

Implicature: implicit meaning but could be understand (tidak dinyatakan tapi dapat dipahami)
Entailment: first sentence true then second sentence is true
Context: Relationship must be understand
Inference: Conclusion
Conventional Meaning
Flout: pelanggaran
Relevance: keterkaitan
Scalar implicature
Defeasibility
Historical pragmatics


(1) It’s the taste
Based on (1) sentence we should try understanding the meaning based its context. The meaning could be positive and negative. When it is used in advertisement, then the meaning should be positive. However, when we ask someone why he did not want to eat some food and he express (1) sentence, then the meaning is negative.

(2) I looked at my watch after two hours and realized that only twenty minutes had passed (Today, BBC Radio 4)
Although the speaker didn’t say that the show was boring, we understand her to mean that it was.

(3)        Customer:   These aren’t very clean – I gave you clean ones last time
            Postmaster: Be careful you don’t trip over the step on your way out.
Postmaster didn’t tell the customer was a fussy idiot, but the postmasters certainly conveyed it.

(4)        Postmaster:   It’s a nice morning isn’t
            Peter:              Not bad.
            Postmaster:   It’ll be better at on o’clock.

According to postmaster to its customer, the postmaster will be happier when the post office had closed. But the postmaster is not explicit his statement to the customer.

(5)        Customer:      I gave you a pound yesterday, etc., etc.
            Postmaster:   My it’s early in the morning isn’t it
            Customer:      It’s too early for you

Although the postmaster didn’t actually tell the customer that he thought she was talking rubbish, he certainly conveyed it. And although the customer didn't actually tell the postmaster that he was stupid, he became unaccountably silent all of sudden.
According (1) to (5) examples, the contest is very important. According the context we can get implicit meaning of the speaker.

There are 4 maxims:
  1. Quantity: give required information
  2. Quality: Try to make your contributor one that is true.
  3. Relation: be relevant
  4. Manner: Be perspicuous

Flouting Maxim
Whenever a maxim is floated there must be an implicature to save the utterance from simply appearing to be faulty contribution to a conversation.

Hedging Maxims
Below example are used multilingual glosses to assure their addresses that the maxims are being scrupulously complied with:
(49)           Smoking damages your health and that’s all there is to it (Quantity)
(50)           Smoking damages your health for sure (Quality)
(51)           The point is that smoking damages your health (Relation)
(52)           Put plainly, smoking damages your health (Manner)

Hedges: basa-basi (platitude) that flouting all maxim

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