Thursday, February 21, 2013

Pragmatics : COOPERATION AND IMPLICATURE






Pragmatics : COOPERATION AND IMPLICATURE

Cooperation: both speaker and listeners has similar understanding to their conversation
Implicature: Expression of the listeners in responding the speaker. Another description is less and general of the statement but the meaning is general.
For example:
In the middle of the lunch, a woman asks her friends about his lunch. Then her friend responds by
“a vegetable is a vegetable”
Then the woman is understand, what her friend expression.


            The meaning of “a vegetable is a vegetable” is general meaning; however the woman is understand the expression of her friend. Understanding of the respond expression is implicature while the understanding between the woman and her friends is cooperation. The woman is known and understands why her friend responds by her own expression.

Tautologies: could me said as generalization, such in "a vegetable is a vegetable” or “business is a business”. When tautologies is used in a conversation, clearly the speaker intends to communicate more than is said.

Cooperative Principle (4 Principles)
Cooperative Principle is statements which are understand both to speaker and listeners. However, the statement requires more information in order to delivery the speaker meaning.
  1. Quantity: speechless, according to the properly respond
  2.  Quality: True statement
  3. Relation : Relevancy
  4. Manner : Perspicuous (clear and easily to understand) briefly, orderly, avoid ambiguity and obscurity of expression

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