Sunday, February 24, 2013

Politeness and Interaction on Pragmatics



Politeness and Interaction on Pragmatics
Book of “Pragmatics” by George Yule

Chapter 7



A linguistics interaction is necessarily a social interaction.
Interaction occurs when speaker and listener are active.
            Factors which relate to social distance and closeness are established prior to an interaction. Typically, social distance and closeness involve the relative status of the participants, based on social values tied to such things as age and power.
            However, there are other factors, such as amount of imposition or degree of friendliness, which are often negotiated during an interaction. These are internal to the interaction and can result in the initial social distance changing and being marked as less, or more, during its course. These internal factors are typically more relevant to participants whose social relationships are actually in the process o being worked out within the interaction.


Politeness
Face means the public self-image of a person. Ace refers to that emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize.
In term of interaction, politeness can defined as the means employe4d to show awareness for another person’s face. Showing awareness for another person’s face when that other seems socially distant is often described in terms of respect or deference.

Politeness occurs in interaction.
Politeness is different in some culture particularly to each local culture.
Politeness happen when we are respected to the listener.

Some factor determined the politeness:
  1. Lexical choice: Use the word could, would, or etc.
  2. Sentence structure: We can use command sentence by using asking sentence.
  3. Gesture and Posture: Use our part of body to support to our speech. We can not use freely all part our body to support our speech act.
  4. Intonation

Example of Politeness
[1]        a. Excuse me, Mr. Buckingham, but can I talk to you for a minute?
            b. Hey, Bucky, got a minute?

Politeness is correlated to degree o relation
The more we act politely then our relation must be far close. On the contrary, the less we act politely then the relation must be close.
When the relation is not close, we can call someone by its title, Degree, (Mr, Sir, Prof. or etc)

Face Wants
Face wants: people generally behave as if their expectations concerning their public self-image will be respected within their everyday social interaction.
Face threatening act: speaking of speakers that represents a threat to another individual’s expectations regarding self image.
Face is citra or image.
Politeness is use to keep person’s face.

Face Saving Act (menghargai orang lain): given the possibility that some action might be interpreted as a threat to another’s face, the speaker can say something to lessen the possible threat.

[2]        Him: I’m going to tell him to stop that awful noise right now!
            Her:  Perhaps you could just ask him if he is going to stop soon because it's getting a bit late and people need to get to sleep.
There are many different ways of performing face saving acts, since each person will attempt to respects the face wants of others.

Negative and Positive Face
Negative face is the need to be independent and positive face is the need to be connected.
Negative Face: The need of the person to be independent, to have freedom of action, and not to be imposed of by others.
Positive Face: The need of the person to be accepted, even liked, by others, to be treated as a member of the same group, and to know that his or her wants are shared by others.

Negative politeness: a face saving act which is oriented to the person's negative face will tend to show deference, emphasized the importance of the other’s time or concerns, and even include an apology for the for the imposition or interruption
Positive Politeness: a face saving act which is concerned with the person’s positive ace will tend to show solidarity, emphasize that both speakers want the same thing, and that they have a common goal.


Self and Other: Say Nothing
[3]        Self:     (looks in bag)
            Other: (offers pen) Here, use this.
When we need express our speak by say nothing, then we should express our sentence by do something related our sentence.

Say Something: Off and On Record
[4]        a. Uh, I forgot my pen.
            b. Hmm, I wonder where I put my pen.

[5]        a. Give me a pen.
            b. Lend me your pen.

Positive and Negative Politeness
[8]        a. How about letting me use your pen?
            b. Hey, buddy, I’d appreciate it if you'd let me use your pen.

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