Wednesday, August 14, 2013

Process of Words Formation, George Yule

This is theory how translator create a new words from Process of Words Formation by George Yule.

1. Coinage
One of the least common processes of word formation in English is coinage. Coinage is the invention of totally new terms. Older examples are aspirin, nylon, vaseline and zipper; more recent examples are granola, kleenex, teflon and xerox or google (from googol, the number 1 followed by 100 zeros). Now the name of google are become anything which is refers to its function or company.

Monday, July 29, 2013

Speech Act Theory: Taxanomies of Acts and Multiple functions & indirect acts

            Taxanomies of Acts
Although Austin (1962: chapter 12) proposes a classification of speech acts, Searle (1979), argues that Austin’s taxonomy does not maintain a clear distinction between illocutionary verbs and acts.
Five classes of speech acts:
  1. Representative, such as asserting (penegasan), description
            “The earth is round.”
            Boss: “This isn’t your private army.”
  1. Directives, such as requesting
            “Don’t touch that!”
  1. Commissives, such as promising
            “I’m going to get it right next time.”
  1. Expressive, such as thanking, apology
            “I’m really sorry”
  1. Declarative, such as appointing
            Priest: I now pronounce you husband and wife.
            Boss: I’m telling you to go by the book.

Saturday, June 29, 2013

Speech Act Theory:Propositional, Preparatory, Sincerity, and Essential Conditions

             Searle: from conditions to rule
Speech act is the basic unit of communication.
“Tindak tutur adalah bagian paling dasar dari komunikasi”
Speech acts are acts characteristically performed by uttering expression.

Speech act becomes crux (most important) in study the language, meaning, and communication.
Speech act becomes a competence of the linguist.
Speech act theory analyzes the way meaning and acts are linguistically communicated.

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Speech Act Theory: Constatives, locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutinary

2.1.2 Constatives
Constatives: Utterances that can be verified as true or false. These utterances were typically in the form of assertions or statements.
For example:
“The cat is on the mat”
“I promise to be there”
If the listeners do not belief the cat is on the mat or he/she will not be there, then the constatives will be untruth.
“I come from to Jambi”

Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Speech Act Theory 1

This material of speech Act Theory 1 is the first part of 3 parts of the speech act theory according my lecturing note and presentation on the subjects of discourse analysis in linguistics. My discourse analysis on speech act theory was base on review of the book “Approaches to Discourse” by Deborah Schiffrin, published by Blackwell in 1995. There are four parts in the chapter of Speech act theory; I make 3 parts separately publish in my blog. Speech act theory 1 is part 1 and an half of part 2. Part one of speech act theory 1 is introduction to speech act and an half of part two is about Defining Speech Act Theory, from Austin explanation. I make some example of the explanation in form of Bahasa Indonesia not in form of English language.
 This is introduction of SpeechAct Theory 1

Sunday, March 31, 2013

“Pragmatics” books by George Yule Section 2

Section 2
“Pragmatics” books by George Yule

Chapter 1
Definition and Background
-          Text 1
            Do you think that pragmatics is the study of all action, or should it be limited to only certain action?
Answer: Yes, pragmatics is the study of all action. Pragmatics could be limited to only certain action in terms of spontaneous action. Some spontaneous actions have no meaning, such as cough, blink, sneeze, yawning or etc.

Thursday, March 28, 2013

Pragmatics 2 and 5 Reference & Inference, Presupposition & Entailment, And Discourse & Culture

Pragmatics 2 and 5 Reference & Inference, Presupposition & Entailment, And Discourse & Culture

Function: asking, question
Language skill are, listening > speaking > reading > writing
What is Pragmatic? Pragmatics is study to politeness, such as the way how we introducing something to someone.

Saturday, March 23, 2013

Psycholinguistics Characteristics of Speech

Section A10
Characteristics of Speech

Ø  We need to plan our pausing in conversation.
Ø  When we need a pausing in the writing form, then the point of pausing place is based on verb in the sentence.
For example:
“Yesterday, when my family and I, went to Jakarta, a first, we didn’t’ know what transport we had to choose, then, my father suggested that, we’d better go by train.”

Saturday, March 16, 2013

Psycholinguistics theory Long Term Memory and Schema Theory

This Psycholinguistics theory is based on Psycholinguistics theory book of Psycholinguistics textbook John Field psycholinguistics book (a resource book for students) published by Routledege in 2003 page 38-43.
Long Term Memory and Schema Theory, page 40

Ø  Types of schema should be used frequently.
Ø  Terms of three types of schema:
    1. ‘World knowledge’: including encyclopedia knowledge, and previous knowledge of the speaker or writer.  In other words, general knowledge as mention in dictionary.
    2. Knowledge built up from the text so far: a current meaning representation or knowledge acquiring after reading some text.
    3. Previous experience (a text schema).

It was different in the speech act, when we talk in the class and talking in the bar.

Ø  Words knowledge serves to:
-          Provide a framework or understanding, the more we have experience, the more we have knowledge.
-          Enable predictions about the text, against which actual contents are matched.
-          Support recall (menopang ingatan).

Ø  Processing a text involves:
-          Setting up a representation of the text so far into which new information is constantly integrated.
o   Install and tidy up the previous one and presently.           
-          Determining what is/ is not important in the text.

Ø  Previous experience of a text type helps us to:
-          Recognize how information is likely to be distributed
-          Recognize how we should engage with the speaker or writer.

A schema framework
            When we read the passage and try to recall the passage, some people will have difficult to explain what they have read. The reason is, because the reader is lacked of schematic background to the passage that they have just read. Some reason also because the reader is never experienced about the passage.
            When we have good schematic background or many experience, we will be easy to recall something that are related to our background. For example: Someone will be easy recall the passage about camel, when he has experience or schematic background about camel previously.

Shared Knowledge
            Sharing the knowledge should be performed when the speaker need to inform some information to the listener. As consequently, when there is a similar knowledge between speakers to listener the conversation is coherence communicative.

Exceptional Circumstance (kondisi luar biasa)

            This part is to support the work of general practitioners, psychiatrist and speech therapist.
            Exceptional circumstance could be explained as:
-          Studies of the effect of deafness or blindness upon language
-          Studies o language disorders where some aspect of linguistic processing is impaired
-          Studies of individual woth cognitive difficulties where at least parts of the language faculty are spared.

            Circumstances affect language in terms of delay acquisition (lambat bicara) and deviance from standard forms (menyebrang dari bentuk standar).

Sensory Impairment
-          Deafness
Teaching language to deafness is by teaching the sign language.
Prelinguistic deafness affects language in delayed acquisition.

-          Blindness
            Blind infants certainly appear to acquire a phonological system a little more slowly than is normal.

-          Language disorder (gangguan bahasa)

            Language disorder can acquire from the result of surgery, a stroke, an accident or old age. Some language disorders are:
o   Problems of fluency (masalah kefasihan)
According psychological aspect, this may result of shy or scare to speak some words.
According physiological aspect, its because of misoperation of the articulators. Physiological aspect is not part of psycholinguistics study, but in medical study.

o   Problems of written language
Dyslexia (difficult in reading)
Dysgraphia (difficult in writing)

Thursday, March 14, 2013

Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening

This Psycholinguistics article on Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening is concern from Psycholinguistics textbook John Field psycholinguistics book (a resource book for students) published by Routledege in 2003. Some psycholinguistics pdf theory textbook was available in others resources (internet). This Psycholinguistics article were comes from my Psycholinguistics definition lecturing note study, particularly about Issues in Listening on page 38 (A9, Issues in Listening) to page 33 of the resource book.

This title of Psycholinguistics article is Psycholinguistics Theory of Issues in Listening
Issues in Listening
Ø  Listening activity is not constructive.
Ø  Listening is very different in form from the word on the page.
Ø  Reading activity can refer to previously, because we can refer to our previous reading material, but listening is not. We only guess what we have listening before. Therefore, listening activity is not constructive.

Tuesday, March 12, 2013


Folktales from Indonesia, Bali. This story is a fairy tales as usual for kids stories from folklore generation to generation.
Cupak and Grantang Bali Folktales 3
Retold by: 

Once upon a time somewhere in Bali there are brothers called Cupak and Grantang who are living in a small village far away from the 'city. Cupak is a big, ugly- and greedy man. Meanwhile his younger brother, Grantang has a very different appearance, attitude, also characteristics with Cupak. Grantang is a handsome, polite and generous young man. Cupak always cheating on his younger brother Grantang, but Grantang never complained about that. Grantang always does what his brother, told him, without trying to disobey all his orders. Even though Grantang keep trying to become a good brother, Cupak never care about him. Cupak is only caring about himself He always hungry and eat as much as he can without considering anybody else including Grantang.

One day when they go to the city to buy some food, they heard the rumor that the King's daughter had been kidnap by a big giant. That giant took the Princess into the forest. To save his daughter, the King then announces a contest to his people and people from others kingdoms, that any one, who can save his daughter will be rewarded. If a man he will make him his son in law by marrying his daughter and if a woman he will adopt her as his daughter. Of course this offer is attracting so many people. A lot of warriors are taking a part in the contest, including Cupak and Grantang. All of them then go to see the King and get his permission to try to save his daughter.

Sunday, March 10, 2013


Retold by:
Retold of A FISH WITH A MOUSTACHE folktales
 Once upon a time in a village in Bali, there lived a witch doctor that was well known for his extremely magical powers. This doctor was capable of healing animals and human beings suffering from severe diseases and he was even able to bring dead animals back to life- One particular time, an animal had had it's head cut off and he managed to revive it by attaching the head cut off and he managed to revive it by attaching the head to the animal's body following a mantra sentence reading.
News of the doctor's effectiveness in applying his magic spread swiftly everywhere within a short time. People flocked to him to see if he could heal their ill family members, and others came with their diseased animals, sometimes even with their dead cattle. His chain of success in rescuing the ill animals brought about an effect that no more living creatures in the worid would be trampled to death.
Nevertheless, the witch doctor wanted to do more and wished next time try to and bring a dead person back to life by cutting off his head and-then joining it together again. He told people of his idea but nobody was interested in taking part in his experiment because nobody among the public was brave enough.

Friday, March 8, 2013


Retold by:
Once upon a time in East Java lived a priest named Sidi Mantra. He was :r good manners priest and managed religion very good. He was very respected 1w his society and his attitude became a pattern. He had enough property and a beautiful wife. But he did not look happy yet because he did not ha%e son. Onc day, he discussed this with his wife and told her about his willing to make worship ceremony to ask for a child to God. His wife agreed.
After sometimes they made worship ceremonies to ask for a child, then the wife of Sidi Mantra was pregnant. Not quite long, a son was born named Manik Angkeran. He became a handsome guy. Unfortunately, he loved gambling. I lis. father had advised him many times, but he did not listen to him. Because of oficil loosed, after a long time Sidi Mantra's wealthy became lessen and finally poor. But Manik Angkeran kept gambling. He had a lot of obligations and asked to his father to pay it. Because Manik Angkeran was the only son, Sidi Mantra felt pity to him. He promised to pay his son's obligations. With his mysticism power, Sidi Mantra found a clue that in a mount named Mount Agung that located in the East Cape there was generous properties. Then, Sidi Mantra departed to the east brought his worship bell.
After arrived at the top of Mount Agung, Sidi Mantra started spell incantation while ringing his bell. Not quite long, came out a huge dragon named Naga Besukih. Sidi Mantra told him about his son condition. Then Naga Besuk I h helped him and gave him gold and diamonds, but Sidi Mantra should advise his son not to gambling because related to religion tuition gambling was a humblest job.

Children Play Shells

Children Play Shells

In that morning, it was beaming. Having completed to help their parents cleaned up the boat and carried fish out; the fisherman’s children romped around at the beach. They walked along the beach collecting sea shells were scattered around rich. They had various colors; there were big and small ones, and the shape was cute.

The little girls collected the little sea shells. There were some whitish, brownish, reddish, yellowish, dark and combined many colors. They picked up the little shells and kept these in the bamboo basket they prepared. The little boys collected the bigger ones; there were as big as vice clamp until as big as little coconut. They put these all in a bag made of frond of areca leaves.

Sunday, February 24, 2013

Politeness and Interaction on Pragmatics

Politeness and Interaction on Pragmatics
Book of “Pragmatics” by George Yule

Chapter 7

A linguistics interaction is necessarily a social interaction.
Interaction occurs when speaker and listener are active.
            Factors which relate to social distance and closeness are established prior to an interaction. Typically, social distance and closeness involve the relative status of the participants, based on social values tied to such things as age and power.
            However, there are other factors, such as amount of imposition or degree of friendliness, which are often negotiated during an interaction. These are internal to the interaction and can result in the initial social distance changing and being marked as less, or more, during its course. These internal factors are typically more relevant to participants whose social relationships are actually in the process o being worked out within the interaction.

Saturday, February 23, 2013

Pragmatics Implicit meaning

Pragmatics Implicit meaning:
Grice’s theory of conversational implicature
From the Book of “Doing Pragmatics” by Peter Grundy

Implicature: implicit meaning but could be understand (tidak dinyatakan tapi dapat dipahami)
Entailment: first sentence true then second sentence is true
Context: Relationship must be understand
Inference: Conclusion
Conventional Meaning
Flout: pelanggaran
Relevance: keterkaitan
Scalar implicature
Historical pragmatics

Psycholinguistics WRITING SYSTEM

Psycholinguistics: WRITING SYSTEM

Some terms should be recognizing in writing system:
-          a writing system: a method of writing such as the alphabet
-          a script: a form of writing (Arabic script, Greek script)
-          an orthography : The writing conventions of a particular language.

Three different types of writing system are in this world, which are:
  1. Alphabetic system: read as its character (Latin character or Arabic character)

Friday, February 22, 2013

Psycholinguistics: Lexical Storage

Psycholinguistic: Lexical Storage

Lexical Storage: how the words are storage and its relationship to others words.
When we said an ‘orange’, then our mind will find other close words which are related to the word of ‘orange’.
Retrieve: is a process of finding a new word in our mind when we get the word. We can use a close meaning or a close form to get a close relationship in our new word.

Thursday, February 21, 2013



Cooperation: both speaker and listeners has similar understanding to their conversation
Implicature: Expression of the listeners in responding the speaker. Another description is less and general of the statement but the meaning is general.
For example:
In the middle of the lunch, a woman asks her friends about his lunch. Then her friend responds by
“a vegetable is a vegetable”
Then the woman is understand, what her friend expression.