Wednesday, November 28, 2012

SPEECH ACTS AND EVENTS


SPEECH ACTS AND EVENTS
            Speech acts, speech while do something. In speech act, there is an action or event occurs.
Speech act also refers to actions performed via utterance.
For example:
The president open the national sport games by says “Dengan ini saya buka PON IV di Palembang”.
When the president speech, then there is an event occur on that time, which are the PON is open.
Speech act should supported by felicity condition.


Pragmatics is relevance to speech act
Locutionary Act (Lokusi): Statement with menanig but without any aim
Illocutionary Act (Ilokusi): Statement with meaning and also aims, statement with asking question.
Perlocutionary Act (Perlukosi) : Influences of Illocutionary act to the listeners.
For example:
A: “Let’s go”
B: “I am cooking” (Locutionary Act /Lokusi)

A: “I want to have a permission to go home back”
B: “I cooking right know” (Illocutionary Act /Ilokusi)
A: “Oh, then, I will wait here” or “Sorry, I am in rush”  (Perlocutionary Act /Perlukosi)

B is asking A to have an eating together with the B. Then A is respond to B which call as Perlocutionary Act .SPEECH ACTS AND EVENTS

Felicity Condition: Fewer in sentences but vary in meaning.
Therefore, facility condition is able to predict. We can identify facility condition by nominative verb.

Speech Act Classification
Generally there are five types of speech act according to its function, which are:
  1. Declaration: Change the world via their utterance
For example:
Referee: “You are out”
            Then the football player is out. Its mean that, the referee is able to declare someone condition, contrast to the supporter of the football, they can not declare the football player are out.
  1. Representative: State what the speaker believes to be the case or not
For example: “the earth is flat”
            The state shows the speaker believe that, the earth is flat. The speaker is not believed that, the earth is round.
  1. Expressive: State the speaker feels
For Example: “I’m really sorry!”
            Psychologically, the speaker is expressing the speaker feels. The speaker shows pain feeling to certain condition.
  1. Directive: Speaker use to get someone else to do something.
            Directive is about speaker commands, orders, request, or suggestion.
For example: “Gimme a cup of coffee. Make it black!”
            The sentences above show the commands of the speaker to the listeners.
  1. Commissives: showing future action of the speaker, such as promising, threating, refusals, or pledges.
For example: “I’ll be back”
            The sentences above, shows the speaker promising to the listeners. However, the meaning could be negative or positive impact to the listener. Positive or negative impact to the listeners is depend on the speaker sound intonations to the listeners.
 SPEECH ACTS AND EVENTS
Diagram below show a general functions of the speech acts, based on Searle 1979.
Types of Speech Act
Types of Speech Act according to Searle 1979

 SPEECH ACTS AND EVENTS
Direct and Indirect Speech Acts
Direct speech = Structure and function are correlated
Indirect speech = structure and function are different; statement is function as a question sentences.

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