Wednesday, November 28, 2012


            Speech acts, speech while do something. In speech act, there is an action or event occurs.
Speech act also refers to actions performed via utterance.
For example:
The president open the national sport games by says “Dengan ini saya buka PON IV di Palembang”.
When the president speech, then there is an event occur on that time, which are the PON is open.
Speech act should supported by felicity condition.

Wednesday, November 21, 2012

Psycholinguistics Theory

In Part A1, psycholinguistics: what is it?, I have mention, the below and my previous article is discuss on psycholinguistics theory based on the Psycholinguistics Books (Field, John, 2003). The next below material will also talk about introduction to psycholinguistics.

Psycholinguistics theory
A2 Language, Speech and Communication
Some question frequently asked in psycholinguistics.
Is speech is only use on the human? The answer is, yes it is. Because human is species-specific.
Is only the human are able in developing their communication rather than animal? The answer is yes.
To what extent is the language faculty separate from other mental operations?
Is the language faculty part of general cognition or not?

There are three approaches consider to the language is a language skill, which are:
  1. We can specify what we mean by ‘language’ and then attempt to establish if the communication system of any other species fits our criteria.
  2. We can establish whether other species are capable of acquiring speech or language.
  3. We can try to establish how language evolved and how long it has been of the property of the human race and its ancestors.

Communication, is a terms which cover any means by which two individuals exchange information.
Language is not the only communication instruments, but many instruments we can used for communication, for example, we can used our hand, body, fire, light or etc. as communication instruments.
We can express the communication in many ways, such as in smiling, winking, nod, or etc.

Psycholinguistics Theory
Paralinguistic technique is a communication which is not involved in vocalization.
Example of Paralinguistic, caught, scream, grunts, snoozing, snorts, whimpers, groans, and sighs.

Language is voluntary: Language is control by speaker.
Language is symbolic: Language is representing something which is different.
Example, when we talk about “rose”, then it can represent as a “love”.
Language is systematic: Language has different specific meaning to another language or words.
Language operates in two different ways, in form of writing and speech.

Speech is symbolize as a vocalization (producing the sound)
Speech is related to form, position, size, voice instrument, tongues, nose and etc.

Psycholinguistics Theory
A3 Language and The Brain
  1. Comparison
Human brain vs Primates Brain
The cortex is much more extensive in human beings.
Human brain is cognitive process (producing and understanding speech) rather then primate brain.
  1. Localization: Brain has specific function
  2. Transition: Sometime brain is easy learning specific language sometime hard.

The brain is protected by many organs. Such as hair, head skin, skull and cortex.

Related keywords of this article are: Assignment or chapter report of Psycholinguistics Theory based on John Field Book (2003).

Sunday, November 18, 2012

Introduction to Psycholinguistics

Below psycholinguistics articles is about psycholinguistic theory based on John Field Psycholinguistics Books, published by Routledge in 2003 (A Resource book for students). Chapter A1 is about Introduction: key concepts in psycholinguistics, where psycholinguistics theory on, psycholinguistics: what is it? According the chapter report, some definition of psycholinguistics are mention in below my chapter report of my handbook of psycholinguistics subjects, Written by John Field. After my subjects in psycholinguistics programs, my lecture also asks me to offer on psycholinguistics research topics.

Psycholinguistics John Field Book Cover
Psycholinguistics by John Field

Tuesday, November 13, 2012

Sub classification of adjuncts

Syntactic features of adjuncts can be:
-         Come within the scope of predication pro-forms or predication ellipsis.
-         The focus of limiter adverbials such as only
-         The focus of additive adverbials such as also
-         The focus of a cleft sentence
Adverb Phrases as Adjuncts can often :
1.Constitute a comparative construction
2.Have premodifying however to form the opening of a dependent adverbial clause
3.Have premodifying how, a pro-form for intensifiers in questions or exclamations.
4.Have premodifying so followed by subject-operator inversion and a correlative clause.

Sunday, November 11, 2012

Adjuncts, Disjuncts and Conjuncts

Adverbial Class has divided into three parts there are Adjuncts, Disjuncts and Conjuncts. The function of adverbial are realized by adverb phrases, noun phrases, prepositional phrases, finite verb clauses, non-finite verb clauses and verbless clauses. In contrast, a disjunct or a conjunct is not affected by either of these clausal processes. Sub classification of adjuncts has eight classification. Most disjuncts are prepositional phrases or clauses. It can be divided into 2 main classes, Style disjuncts and Attitudinal disjuncts. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases or prepositional phrases. The normal position for most conjuncts is initial.

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Wednesday, November 7, 2012

Reason Why People are Comes to Bali

Bali Island

No other parts of Indonesian can be compete Bali as the international tourist destination. Bali has everything with the other parts do not have. It has beautiful nature, interesting arts, friendly people, nice culture and standard security. Of course, all o them should be the reason why people are comes to Bali
From the beach until the mountain Bali have them. The beach has a beautiful sunset, nice sunrise and white sand. People love it. If they get bored, they can go to the mountain. It is still naturally.

Sunday, November 4, 2012

Foreign Influences on Old English

Chapter IV
Foreign Influences on Old English
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-   The contact of English with other languages.
In the course of the first seven hundred years of its existence in England it was brought into contact with three other languages, the languages of the Celts, the Romans, and the Scandinavians. The nature f these contacts and the changes that were effected by them will from the subject of the present chapter.

-   The Celtic Influences.
Nothing would seem more reasonable then to expect that the conquest of the Celtic population of Britain’s by the Teutons and the subsequent mixture of the two races should have resulted in a corresponding mixture of their languages. In the east and southeast, where the Teutonic conquest was fully accomplished at a fairly early date, it is probable that there were fewer survivals of a Celtics population than elsewhere.