Saturday, October 6, 2012

Definition of Pragmatics


The below material are based on the Book of “Pragmatics” by George Yule, publish by Oxford University Press 1996.
The material is chapter report of my lecturer in Pragmatics subject in the Chapter 1 Definition and background: syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, regularity, and the pragmatics wastebasket page 4-6.

Pragmatics

Pragmatics is about speaker meaning, contextual meaning, gets communicated that sets, and expression of relative distance.



Pragmatics is a study of speaker meaning based on contextual meaning not based on utterance meaning.

Language is about “Who speaks to whom, about what, where and when”.

Languages are implied by 3 factors, field, tone, and mode.
Tone is about who speaks to whom, while mood is about the way of speaking.

Based on pragmatics point of view, the context will show the meaning.

Branch of Linguistics:
Phonetics : Study of language sound
Phonology : Study about how to write the sound
Morphology : Study the structure and content of word forms.
Syntax : Study about sentence structure. Sentence in syntax study is consist of subject, verb, object, and complement (s, v, o, and complement)
Semantic : Semantic is study the meaning of the text or the sentence based on sentence structure.
Semiotics : In perspective of semiotics, language can be seen as a sign or symbol.
Psycholinguistics : The study of how individuals comprehend, produce and acquire language.
Sociolinguistics : Studies the relation between language and society

Example:
Sentence 1:
“I found an old bicycle lying on the ground. The chain was rusted and the tires were flat”
Sentence 2:
“I found an old bicycle. A bicycle has a chain. The chain was rusted. A bicycle also has tires. The tires were flat”.
Based on first sentence, the bicycle was old, with rusted chain and flat tire. We can understand based on the article “the”. In the second sentences, we need to clarify to "A bicycle has a chain” and
“A bicycle also has tires”. Those are general statement, but we do not know, where it is refers to.
“The duck ran up to marry and lick her”
Based on above example, grammatically the sentence is correct but, the sentences illogically.


Those Material above are based on the Book of “Pragmatics” by George Yule, publish by Oxford University Press 1996.
The material is chapter report of my lecturer in Pragmatics subject in the Chapter 1 Definition and background: syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, regularity, and the pragmatics wastebasket page 4-6.

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