Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Pragmatics: Appropiacy, Inference, Indeterminacy, Context, Relevance, Reflexivity, Misfires


Theory, Definition and Examples according Book of “Doing Pragmatics” by Peter Grundy
Below material are based on the Book of “Doing Pragmatics” by Peter Grundy.
The material is chapter report of my lecturer in Pragmatics subject.

1. Using and Understanding Language
Keywords: indirect meaning, inference, indeterminacy, context, relevance, reflexivity, deixis, implicature, speech act
Theory, Definition and Examples

Looking for Peter Grundy Books or ebook, Doing Pragmatics?
Peter Grundy: Doing Pragmatics
 Every steps in pragmatics should be analyse the meaning
For example:
P: What’s your name by the way?
S: Stephen
P: You haven’t asked my name back
S: What’s your name?
P: It’s Pat

Based on above conversation, we can see two persons are having conversation. Based on conjunction “by the way” we can know that, these two person have previous conversation before.

Pharmacist: Do you usually have this sort
Peter: Yeh I think so
Pharmacist: They make you drowsy mind
Peter: Oh are there others that don’t

The second conversation shows the conversation between two persons, pharmacist (as a seller) and peter (as a buyer). The pharmacist asked the buyer about the medicine that he wanted to buy. The pharmacist identify the buyer is not well-recognize with the medicine (based on the answer of the peter, “Yeh I think so”). Then, the pharmacist explains the effect of the medicine.

Appropiacy (Kelayakan): Theory, Definition and Examples
We can have a different speaking when we will speak to someone in different social status.

Example: “I think we could go in now you know”
Based on the sentences, the speaker is asked someone to “go in” in politness. The word “could” show the politeness degree. Moreover, the status of the speaker is not more then the listener.

Non-Literal or Indirect Meaning (maksudnya tidak begitu)

Peter Grundy Books, Doing Pragmatics

Inference (menyimpulkan): Theory, Definition and Examples
Inference is used to stressing the utterance
For example the text in one of advertisement:
“Produk ini dapat membersihkan dan menghilangkan bau
The underline text is stressing the text to show the advantages of the product.

Indeterminacy: Theory, Definition and Examples
A requirement in confirm someone speaking.
For example:
“I’m a man”
Based on the above sentences, someone who inform that the speaker is “a man” should confirm the speaker, why the speaker tell he was “a man”. Therefore, the addressee should confirm to the speaker to get an understanding.

Context: Theory, Definition and Examples
Context can help in determining the meaning of the utterance.
For Example:
“I’m tired”
When the utterance says the sentence in the night, the utterance could be tired physically. Moreover, when the utterance speaks to her/his close-friend about his/her jobs maybe the utterance explain that the utterance is tired being working.

These Material are based on the Book of “Doing Pragmatics” by Peter Grundy.
The material is chapter report of my lecturer in Pragmatics subject.


Relevance (berkaitan): Theory, Definition and Examples
Relevance has been seen as the most important principle in accounting for the way we understand the language.
For example:
“I’m enjoying school much more now”
There is unclear meaning in word now. Is the utterance explained that he/she was enjoying school now, enjoying his primary school, university or etc.? Therefore, we need to clarify, about the meaning of word now.

Reflexivity (memasukkan bunyi-bunyi konjungsi tertentu): Theory, Definition and Examples
How the speaker wants to be understood.
For example:
“… and er is it Knowledge and Reality”
The word er explains that, the speaker isn’t unsure that what he says is right.


Misfires: Theory, Definition and Examples
Misfires are a kind of pragmatic failure which results from language being used in a way that is not felt to be appropriate to the context. Or in other word it could be say, we need express other expression with certain context.
For example:
“Thank you for not smoking”
The sentence express to not smoking for the context. The sentence is appropriate used rather that “Do not smoking” in certain context

Those Material above are based on the Book of “Doing Pragmatics” by Peter Grundy.
The material is chapter report of my lecturer in Pragmatics subject.

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